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Letting the movement of the vessel be absent Letting the vessel rest Letting the movement of the vessel be absent Letting the vessel rest Letting the turning of the vessel be A discussion of the steps in aural comprehension Letting the vessel rest It is interesting that this example focuses on a 'container'.
The 'container metaphor' has been the subject of extensive discussion since the work of Lakoff and Johnson [ more ; more ]. Implicit in the theme of navigating alternative realities is the nature of the container or vessel inhabited by the navigator -- irrespective of whether the space is itself considered as a container.
Elsewhere in this paper, reference is made to the notion of a 'vehicle' of awareness in Buddhism explored further in a subsequent paper.
With respect to the 'manoeuvering situations' of the example, the container metaphor is notably used by Jaap Hage in Reasoning with Rules Kluwer, in relation to artifical intelligence and the law -- and is associated with a balance-of-forces metaphor for judicial reasoning.
Many would recognize the extent to which legal reasoning engenders surrealistic 'alternative' realities -- but any alternative reality might be considered as conceptually sustained by such a balance.
Reasons are then seen as pushing against each other, cancelling as well as reinforcing, and the result of reasoning may hide the complexity of the reasons that figured in the result. In a similar vein, Rudolph J. Peritz Exploring the Limits of Formalism: AI and legal pedagogy, argues for the use of catastrophe theory as sharing normative ground with work already done in philosophy, sociology of knowledge, and law Derrida; Foucault; Peritz: It is my belief that the unmediated interplay of social forces such as McCarty's deontic modalities form the surface that we treat as the "area" or corpus of contract law, or other law.
These force relations produce rational and discontinuous doctrine. Attention to Thom's work offers a framework for expert system designers and AI researchers to develop new strategies for modeling conflict and discontinuity, and for contributing to the improvement of pragmatic legal pedagogy, by pushing the limits of expansive formalism -- work already begun by those engaged in expert system design and AI research.
It would be useful to know whether combat manoeuvering possibilities [ more ; more ; more ; more ] had been analyzed in terms of the elementary catastrophes -- especially in the light of the statement on one web site on air combat manoeuvering ACM that: But such in not the case. A fighter pilot has only a limited number of options with which to meet a given situation.
Which one he uses will be dictated more by the relative positions and energy states of himself and his opponent than by any potential technical advantages that his aircraft may possess. He will strive to deny his adversary the initiative, knowing that air combats are lost more often than they are won The aspiring fighter pilot is taught basic air combat manoeuvers, some defensive, others offensive.
Aerobatic manoeuvers also include: Novel combat manoeuvers are being discovered through genetics-based learning processes and combat simulations [ more ]. The focus on 'energy' in air combat is reminiscent of that in Eastern approaches to martial arts [ more ].
Thom offers many examples in biology, sociology and semantics for which his elementary catastrophes provide generic structure for morphogenesis. It is worth asking whether any single form from everyday experience holds all the structures he identifies.
It is then tempting to point to the possibility that human biodynamics is such a form -- and possibly necessarily so. In Table 4, for example, to what extent do his 'substantives' describe features of the human form that have characacteristic 'dynamics' associated with them -- especially in relation to 'morphogenesis', namely reproductive behaviour?
The terms in Table 4 that Thom struggles to offer originally in French to articulate complex mathematical functions, could well be replaced by synonyms that exemplify this suggestion.
The 'archetypal morphologies' might well then be understood in terms of reproductive behaviours -- from courtship to consummation -- as exhibited by corresponding formal attributes and dispositions. It is interesting however that the complete set can only be held by two complementary bodies in dynamic relationship -- a theme characteristic of tantric philosophy see below.
Just as Thom is concerned generically with morphogenesis, this 'reproductive' case may simply be an instance of other forms of behaviour that involve some form of 'courtship' capture or entrapment that provides a context for more complex interactions.
It is in this sense that catastrophe has been applied to dialogue and conflict situations cf Postle, It could equally be applied to the stages and processes of interaction between enterprises leading to mergers -- hence the sexual metaphors frequently used in this connection, and the excitement experienced by entrepreneurs.
This would also help to explain the nature of the relationship between those engaged in surfing and more extreme sports and the 'reality' with which they engage. The reason it is often described as 'better than sex' is because it is effectively 'sex' in the generic sense -- where the sexual process is exemplified by the pattern of 'catastrophes'.
There is a common pattern to the attractors in each instance -- which may be related to the pattern of 'virtues' and 'vices'. But, as noted by Octavio Paz: The possibility of subtler understandings of this relationship leads into the experience of 'ascent' of any 'vehicle' -- whether a spacecraft or a vehicle for human identity see also Entering Alternative Realities -- Astronautics vs Noonautics: Clues from navigation of multi-media and virtual reality environments With the emergence of the web, considerable attention has been given to the challenge of navigation of knowledge space, whether as a design challenge to tool providers or as an experiential challenge for the users of those tools cf Envisaging the Art of Navigating Conceptual Complexity Such navigation can be understood as offering alternative conceptual realities independent of the use of the interface multi-media enhancements associated with more publicized virtual reality environments.
Virtual reality hype is becoming a large part of everyday life. It is relevant to this paper when the engagement of the navigator in the virtual reality environment is much greater.
Although the extent to which this effectively constitutes an alternative reality -- or how 'alternative' is that reality in terms of its conceptual dimensions, orientation and navigational challenges -- tends not to be a focus of attention.There are two basic aims of senior high school English language arts.
One aim is to encourage, in students, an understanding and appreciation of the significance and artistry of literature. ACCOUNTING [back to top]. ACC Essentials of Accounting 3 cr.
Covers reading and understanding financial statements, internal control requirements for safeguarding assets, and accounting procedures necessary to complete the entire accounting cycle, including journals, ledgers, and financial statements.
Apr 09, · An Interactive Model of Listening Comprehension. This feature is not available right now. Please try again later. The Online Writing Lab (OWL) at Purdue University houses writing resources and instructional material, and we provide these as a free service of the Writing Lab at Purdue.
Listening in a foreign language is a complex process. Students have to be able to understand the main idea of what is said as well as specific details. Teaching Every Student in the Digital Age.
by David H. Rose, Anne Meyer, Nicole Strangman and Gabrielle Rappolt. Table of Contents. Chapter 3. Why We Need Flexible Instructional Media.