Man is a bubble, and all the world is a storm. He kept it on a shelf in our family den, where for years when I was a kid it roared down at us -- unappeasably furious or so I always thought at being trapped up there on its high perch, with no company except some painted beer mugs and a set of purple glass swizzle sticks.
The prehistory of the area that is now the Netherlands was largely shaped by the sea and the rivers that constantly shifted the low-lying geography. The oldest human Neanderthal traces were found in higher soils, near Maastrichtfrom what is believed to be aboutyears ago.
From Mesolithic Maglemosian-like tribes c. Bronze Age cultures in the Netherlands. Indigenous late Mesolithic hunter-gatherers from the Swifterbant culture c. There was a quick and smooth transition from the Funnelbeaker farming culture to the pan-European Corded Ware pastoralist culture c.
Although in the southwest, the Seine-Oise-Marne culture related Vlaardingen culture c. Of the subsequent Bell Beaker culture — BC several regions of origin have been postulated, notably the Iberian peninsula, the Netherlands and Central Europe.
The many finds in Drenthe of rare bronze objects, suggest that it was even a trading centre in the Bronze Age — BC.
The initial phase of the Elp culture was characterised by tumuli — BC that were strongly tied to contemporary tumuli in northern Germany and Scandinavia, and were apparently related to the Tumulus culture in central Europe.
The subsequent phase was that of cremating the dead and placing their ashes in urns which were then buried in fields, following the customs of the Urnfield culture — BC. The southern region became dominated by the related Hilversum culture — BCwhich apparently inherited cultural ties with Britain of the previous Barbed-Wire Beaker culture.
Expansion into the southern Low Countries by BC. Iron ore brought a measure of prosperity, and was available throughout the country, including bog iron. Smiths travelled from settlement to settlement with bronze and iron, fabricating tools on demand.
The deteriorating climate in Scandinavia around BC, that further deteriorated around BC, might have triggered migration of Germanic tribes from the North. By the time this migration was complete, around BC, a few general cultural and linguistic groups had emerged. They would later develop into the Frisii and the early Saxons.
This group consisted of tribes that would eventually develop into the Salian Franks. Some scholars have speculated that even a third ethnic identity and language, neither Germanic nor Celtic, survived in the Netherlands until the Roman period, the Iron Age Nordwestblock culture,   that eventually was being absorbed by the Celts to the south and the Germanic peoples from the east.
Rhine Frontier of around 70 AD. Notable towns would arise along the Limes Germanicus: The area to the north of the Rhine, inhabited by the Frisii, remained outside Roman rule but not its presence and controlwhile the Germanic border tribes of the Batavi and Cananefates served in the Roman cavalry.
The Batavi later merged with other tribes into the confederation of the Salian Franks, whose identity emerged at the first half of the third century. They were forced by the confederation of the Saxons from the east to move over the Rhine into Roman territory in the fourth century.
Roman forces pacified the region, but did not expel the Franks, who continued to be feared at least until the time of Julian the Apostatewhen Salian Franks were allowed to settle as foederati in Toxandria. Coastal lands remained largely unpopulated for the next two centuries.
After Roman government in the area collapsed, the Franks expanded their territories in numerous kingdoms. By the s, Clovis I had conquered and united all these territories in the southern Netherlands in one Frankish kingdomand from there continued his conquests into Gaul.
During this expansion, Franks migrating to the south eventually adopted the Vulgar Latin of the local population. To the north of the Franks, climatic conditions on the coast improved, and during the Migration Period the abandoned land was resettled again, mostly by Saxonsbut also by the closely related AnglesJutes and ancient Frisii.
By the seventh century a Frisian Kingdom — under King Aldegisel and King Redbad emerged with Utrecht as its centre of power,   while Dorestad was a flourishing trading place.
Inat the Battle of the Boarnthe Frisians were defeated after a series of wars. He established the Archdiocese of Utrecht and became bishop of the Frisians. However, his successor Boniface was murdered by the Frisians in Dokkumin Rorik of DorestadViking ruler of Friesland romantic depiction.
Lotharingia after with the language border dotted in red. However, as ofit was divided into three parts— EastMiddleand West Francia. Most of present-day Netherlands became part of Middle Franciawhich was a weak kingdom and subject of numerous partitions and annexation attempts by its stronger neighbours.
It comprised territories from Frisia in the north to the Kingdom of Italy in the south. After he died inLotharingia was partitioned, into Upper and Lower Lotharingiathe latter part comprising the Low Countries that technically became part of East Francia inalthough it was effectively under the control of Vikings, who raided the largely defenceless Frisian and Frankish towns lying on the Frisian coast and along the rivers.
The Viking raids made the sway of French and German lords in the area weak.+ free ebooks online. Did you know that you can help us produce ebooks by proof-reading just one page a day?
Go to: Distributed Proofreaders. L. ¶ The Dark Ages, and Other Poems (English) (as Author); Laak, W.F.C. van, ¶. Reisontmoetingen van Joachim Polsbroekerwoud en zijne Vrienden (Dutch) (as Commentator); Labaree, Mary Schauffler.
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