Free national security Essays and Papers — Free national security papers, essays, and research papers. National security has become a major issue since the attacks of September 11, National Security — Essay — Technology Essays: Saved essays Save your essays here so you can locate them quickly!
They resent any person, physical barrier, or law that tries to keep them from doing this. This is especially true when a hacker wants to fix something that from his point of view is broken or needs improvement.
Think to your own experience: It is also a key behavior behind technological progress and innovation by identifying exploits and recombinatorial possibilities to make something new out of old systems. The speech-acts through which cybersecurity policies have framed cyberthreats have failed to recognize this link between hacking and innovation capacities and the the heavy cost of cybersecurity enforcement on entrepreneurial potential.
I have called these representations cyberscale and cyberubiquity. Finally, I will also include in this framework an educational problem in the United States that operates as a metastructure of cyberscale and cyberubiquity, for which I use the name of cyberscare.
The whole threat narrative that surrounds cybersecurity is geopolitically represented as a problem of scale. Cyberattacks are framed as asymmetrical power rivalries over territories in which the small and the large scales collide. Exploited as a threat narrative, the representation of cyberscale is pushed to the extreme to make this power differential a source of fears.
The dominant discursive framework of cybersecurity politics affirms and extends the geopolitical representation of deterritorialization of battlefields that was initiated by replacing symmetric cold war communist enemies by asymmetric islamic terrorists by the way, this metaphoric asymmetry also refers to scale.
The hacker is everywhere and he can be everybody. In one of the most quoted books by governmental officials on the topic of cyber, Richard Clarkeformer National Coordinator for Security, Infrastructure Protection, and Counter-terrorism exploits the representation of cyberubiquity in very clear terms: It sounds like another dimension, perhaps with green lighting and columns of numbers and symbols flashing in midair, as in the movie The Matrix.
Cyberspace is actually much more mundane.
Have we learned nothing from the WMD debacle? Without a solid educational foundation on Science, Technology, Engineering and Math STEMthose critical systems become unintelligible for the majority of the population including elected officials effectively shielding them from being able to effectively participate in technology policy debates they do not understand about matters that are essential to their freedoms and well being.
In the securitization of cyberspace, the hacker is framed as the ultimate homeland security adversary. To the average techno-layman, the hacker is perceived as a super empowered individual with knowledge that makes him or her normally a him more dangerous than any other previous enemy of the social status quo.
He can open doors that are closed to the rest of us, take control of nuclear power plants or any other technology, and through computing languages that are indecipherable to the vast majority of the people, he holds the power to destroy us.
The hackers, individually defined or as part of organized crime syndicates or international cyber-military complexes, have the evil profile of a comic book supervillain: For these supervillains, the cyberscare also reinforces the cyberubiquity representation by triggering geographic proximity fears.
For example, in the movie the Matrix, an important film loaded with almost all the cybersecurity representations ever conceived, agent Smith, a character that represents the authorities enforcing cybersecurity norms, confronts Neo, the protagonist of the story, during their first encounter in the following terms: Anderson, program writer for a respectable software company.
You have a social security number, pay your taxes, and you… help your landlady carry out her garbage. One of these lives has a future, and one of them does not. Finally, the cyberscare facilitates the menacing framing of small groups of hackers as super empowered adversaries embedded in our society capable of inducing catastrophic collapse to nations or corporations; this is the heart of the geopolitical representation of cyberscale.
All the speech acts behind these representations are polysemic concepts loaded with subjective values within competitive narratives. Cybersecurity is a rich policy environment in which definitions convey political intentions as stakeholders use them in order to increase their power and profits or to decrease the power of adversaries.
Like most geopolitical representations, cybersecurity speech-acts introduce cognitive frames and representations with a policy goal in mind, and like all geopolitical representations, cyberscale and cyberubiquity are political perceptions presented in the context of their relation to territories, introduced in the public conversation by actors who expect to obtain political gain.
Their accuracy is irrelevant because their key role is to support political narratives, but geopolitical representations are normally validated by verifiable facts that can be and often are distorted to achieve their main political mobilization goal.
For example, for the geopolitical representations of cyberscale and cyberubiquity to be successfully exploited as speech-acts to securitize cyberspace, risk management approaches that balance risk and response are mainly excluded from the discourse.
Most governmental programs and cybersecurity products on the market are anticipatory in nature, and therefore part of this excessive spending. Nevertheless, this extra cost of current cyberdefense programs is omitted or dismissed as unimportant in cyberubiquity and cyberscale speech-acts.
Turf wars with the NSA forced his resignation inless than a year after his appointment. NSA currently dominates most national cyber efforts. While acknowledging the critical importance of NSA to our intelligence efforts, I believe this is a bad strategy on multiple grounds.
The intelligence culture is very different than a network operations or security culture. In addition, the threats to our democratic process are significant if all top level government network security and monitoring are handled by any one organization either directly or indirectly.
Finally, the move to securitize cyberspace also neglects to factor the negative consequences on the creative economy of demonizing the hacker ethic when digital cybersecurity policies make technological appropriation more difficult and digital rule breaking criminal.Gartner says that worldwide information security spending will reach $ billion this year, almost an 8% growth in comparison to the last year, as “organizations become more threat-aware”.
Meanwhile, the cost of global cybercrime is about $ billion per year, a 33% percent growth according to McAfee. The effect of geopolitics on cybersecurity can be seen daily through political mistrust between different geopolitical regions combined with the emergence of cyberspace as a de facto theater of war.
Our website is the source for the latest security and strategic research from the military's link to the academic community. The Strategic Studies Institute is . Avoiding the Cyber Security Blindside: Cardinal Innovation’s CIO Talks Endpoint Protection May 21, ; How cybercrime and cybersecurity affects nations and geopolitics.
October 20, ; In terms of risk, particularly in the case of a national security risk, the cost is hard to calculate. As a result, you have governments.
Well before the information about the NSA dragnet programs was leaked by Edward Snowden in , Rod Beckström, a member of the aforementioned High-Tech . Borders and boundaries, commonly defined as the lines dividing distinct political, social, or legal territories, are arguably the most ubiquitous features within the field of political geography.
Indeed, borders have become prominent topics of research for a range of scholars from across the social.