In the early nineteenth century, Lovelace Augusta Byron King, Countess of Lovelace, made her mark among the world of men that has influenced even today's world. At the time of Lovelace's discoveries, women were only just beginning to take part in the scientific world, and her love of mathematics drove her straight into the world of men. Her upbringing, her search for more knowledge, her love of mathematics, and her inherited writing abilities brought to life what we know today as computer programming or computer science.
The shift came about while he was doing research for his thesis.
The subject of the thesis, was space charge. Before long his thesis research came to consist primarily of solving nonlinear [differential] equations.
The only methods then available for numerical solutions of problems like his made use of electromagnetic desk calculators, and calculations like those he needed were extremely time-consuming.
He also realized that a computing machine would be of great use in solving pressing problems in many scientific fields, in engineering, and even in the social sciences.
As he had been fully aware that making such a computer a reality would require money and a lot of it, he decided to go to one of the biggest manufacturers of mechanical and electromechanical calculators in USA—the Monroe Calculating Machine Company.
Aiken was encouraged by Chase's enthusiastic support of his project. Chase went to his management at Monroe and he did everything within his power to convince them that they should go ahead with this project, although it would be an expensive development. He had the vision and foresight to recognize that the proposed machine would be invaluable in the company's business in later years.
But, although the Chief Engineer could see this, his management after some months of discussion turned him down completely. Aiken was not tied to the relay technology at all.
He was a student of Chaffee, a specialist in vacuum tubes and vacuum-tube circuits and was aware of this technology. So why wasn't Mark I an electronic device?
The answer is money. Aiken was aware, that it was going to take a lot of money. When he applied for the financial support of Monroe, he was ready to make his computer out of mechanical parts and relays. If an electronic company had been interested, it might have been electronic.
And finally it was made out of tabulating machine parts, only because IBM was willing to pay the bill. Monroe's decision not to support Aiken's project was certainly a blow, but Aiken must have been heartened by Chase's enthusiasm for the new machine.
Watson, president of IBM. Thus Aiken made a successful contact with IBM.
Brown recommended Aiken to IBM's senior engineer Bryce, who approved his project and recommended that his dream machine be built. Bryce's opinion was crucial to IBM's decision and gained the president Watson's support for the Harvard calculator project.
It occupied 22 double-spaced typed pages and opens with a brief history of aids to calculation, a discussion of Babbage's enginesmentions the difference engines of ScheutzWibergand Grantand had a brief account of Hollerith's invention of punched-card tabulating, counting, sorting, and arithmetical machinery.
It is known that Henry Babbage, the son of Charles Babbage, assembled about six small demonstration pieces for Difference Engine Number 1 and one of them he sent to Harvard, which was known to Aiken.
Later he wrote that on seeing the machine "he felt that Babbage was addressing him personally from the past". Aiken observes also that the machines manufactured by the IBM have made it possible to do daily in the accounting offices of industrial enterprises all over the world the things Babbage wished to accomplish.
Aiken then turns to the need for more powerful calculating methods in the mathematical and physical sciences. Aiken outlined the areas of use of his computer—theoretical physics, radio communication and television, astronomy, the theory of relativity, and even the rapidly growing science of mathematical economy and sociology.
Aiken specified four design features that differentiated ordinary punched-card accounting machinery and calculating machinery as required in the sciences: A machine intended for mathematics must be able to handle both positive and negative quantities, whereas accounting machinery is designed almost entirely for problems of positive numbers.
Calculating machinery for mathematical purposes must be able to supply and utilize many kinds of transcendental functions e. For mathematics, a calculating machine should be fully automatic in its operation once a process is established.
In calculating the value of a function in its expansion in a series, the evaluation of a formula, or numerical integration in solution of a differential equationthe process, once established, must continue indefinitely until the range of the independent variables is covered usually by successive equal steps.
Calculating machinery designed for mathematics should be capable of computing lines instead of columns, since often, in the numerical solution of a differential equation, the computation of a value will be found to depend on preceding values. This is actually the reverse of the way in which existing calculating machinery is capable of evaluating a function by steps.The Birth Of Computer Programming (Ada Augusta Byron King) In a world of men, for men, and made by men, there were a lucky few women who could stand up and be noticed.
In the early nineteenth century, Lovelace Augusta Byron King, Countess of Lovelace, made her mark among the world of men that has influenced even today’s world. Allan Cronshaw was a recent speaker at The Conference For Consciousness And Human Evolution in London (see SPEAKERS) Allan is an acknowledged Scholar, Mystic and Gnostic of unequaled Spiritual Insight.
Micro Men, working title Syntax Era is a one-off BBC drama television show set in the late s and the early-mid s, about the rise of the British home computer market.
It focuses on the rivalry between Sir Clive Sinclair (played by Alexander Armstrong), who developed the ZX Spectrum, and Chris Curry (played by Martin Freeman), the man .
Computer scientists from the University of Bonn have developed software that can look a few minutes into the future: The program first learns the typical sequence of actions, such as cooking, from. The story of computing at Columbia is presented chronologically.
Most links are to local documents, and therefore will work as long as all the files accompanying this document are kept together. Dear Twitpic Community - thank you for all the wonderful photos you have taken over the years. We have now placed Twitpic in an archived state.